Modified Gray-Level Haralick Texture Features for Early Detection of Diabetes Mellitus and High Cholesterol with Iris Image


Iris has specific advantages, which can record all organ conditions, body construction, and psychological disorders. Traces related to the intensity or deviation of organs caused by the disease are recorded systematically and patterned on the iris and its surroundings. The pattern that appears on the iris can be recognized by using image processing techniques. Based on the pattern in the iris image, this paper aims to provide an alternative noninvasive method for the early detection of DM and HC. In this paper, we perform detection based on iris images for two diseases, DM and HC simultaneously, by developing the invariant Haralick feature on quantized images with 256, 128, 64, 32, and 16 gray levels. The feature extraction process does early detection based on iris images. Researchers and scientists have introduced many methods, one of which is the feature extraction of the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). Early detection based on the iris is done using the volumetric GLCM development, namely, 3D-GLCM. Based on 3D-GLCM, which is formed at a distance of and in the direction of 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, and 315°, it is used to calculate Haralick features and develop Haralick features which are invariant to the number of quantization gray levels. The test results show that the invariant feature with a gray level of 256 has the best identification performance. In dataset I, the accuracy value is 97.92, precision is 96.88, and recall is 95.83, while in dataset II, the accuracy value is 95.83, precision is 89.69, and recall is 91.67. The identification of DM and HC trained on invariant features showed higher accuracy than the original features.


This paper proposes a volumetric feature extraction technique, which considers the significant differences between pixels derived from a GLCM-based feature extraction method, called 3D-GLCM. By interpreting 3D-GLCM as a discretized probability density function, it is possible to construct a set of Haralick texture features. A collection of Haralick features is modified asymptotically invariant to image quantization.

In 3D-GLCM feature extraction, the invariant retains its original interpretation. We demonstrate that invariant 3D-GLCM feature extraction can be used in different identification settings, with results superior to the original 3D-GLCM feature extraction definition. This indicates that invariant Haralick texture features can be reproduced even when different gray-level quantization is used.

International Journal of Biomedical Imaging

Rinci Kembang Hapsari,1 Miswanto Miswanto,2 Riries Rulaningtyas,3 Herry Suprajitno,2 and Gan Hong Seng4

1Department of Informatics, Faculty of Electrical and Information Technology, Institut Teknologi Adhi Tama Surabaya, Indonesia

2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

3Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

4Department of Data Science, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, 16100 UMK City Campus, Pengkalan Chepa, Kelantan, Malaysia

Academic Editor: Alessandro Bruno