Abstract- (Translated from Russian language)

In this article the structure of the iris and its possible colors are considered. A hypothesis is confirmed about the dependence of eye color on the morphological features of the people’s of people.

The eye is an organ of vision. It includes the eyeball and its auxiliary device: oculomotor muscles, lacrimal apparatus, eyelids. The eyeball is a flattened on both sides of the ball, more convex in the front of it. It lies in the cavity of the eye-nitsa and consists of the components of the inner core (anterior and posterior chambers of the eye, crystalline lens and vitreous body) and the three membranes surrounding it: fibrous, vascular and reticular (outside inside).
Let’s talk in more detail about the choroid, which is average in the eyeball. In all its departments, it is rich in vessels and pigment cells. Three sections are distinguished in it: the iris (iris), the ciliary body, and the actual vascular membrane (choroidea). The iris is a disc-shaped formation with a round hole – the pupil [5, p.2-3]. There are also muscles in the iris that narrow and dilate the pupil.
In anthropology, an increased interest in iris pigmentation has been noted since the end of the 19th century.
So in 1877 Paul Broca made tables with which you can determine the color of the eyes. Rudolph Martin supplemented and improved Brock’s methodology by compiling an iris coloring scale, which included sixteen glass eye models. After some time, Schulze and Zaller improved the Martin scale: they added another 24 pigmentation variants to the color spectrum of the iris, thereby increasing the color range to 40 different combinations. Scientists have proved that one of the main components of the iris is melanin, and it gives a unique color to the human eye. It is worth noting that the light does not actually pass through the iris, but depending on the intensity of ultraviolet rays, melanin is able to change, giving the color of the iris either lighter or darker shades.

To this day, unfortunately, there is no such instrumental method by which it would be possible to determine the color of a person’s eyes. In Russian anthropology, the Bunak descriptive scale was in demand. She allowed to determine the three main types of iris pigmentation, based on its color properties. V.V. Bunak is one of the first anthropologists who drew attention to the features of the structure of the iris, and not just its color index. Iridologists focus on both the features of pigmentation and the morphological characteristics of the iris tissue to assess the individual properties of the reactivity and resistance of the human body [2, p.26]. We can note the common scientific interests of anthropologists and iridologists in the study of not only the background color, but also the chromatic pattern, with respect to which iridologists offer their classification based on the origin of the pigment phenomenon [1, p. 28-31]. At present, the unification of sciences is actively practiced, it is because of this that new instrumental methods for studying the morphological signs of the iris appear. It would be interesting to observe iridological techniques, but with the position of anthropologists, in particular, to study the features of the density of the tissues of the iris, based on one or another of its colors.
Using digital photographs of the iris of the human eye as the material under study, obtained using the specialized Iridoscope I-5 device, it is possible to evaluate iris pigmentation. For this, the very Bunak scale, which includes 12 eye prostheses, is necessary. Comparison of the color of these prostheses with the color of the human eye helps to determine one of the three main types of color shades of the iris. These shades include:
1. Dark. The main criterion is that the iris should not contain any other color elements, except for brown, black and yellow.
It is also proven that visual acuity directly depends on the color of the human eye. What basically quite logical, knowing the previous fact. Studies have been conducted confirming this statement. The data were as follows: there are much more dark-eyed people who are healthy by visual acuity; light-eyed people and people with a mixed type of eye often have refractive errors [6, p. 46-50].
Based on recent research, we’ll summarize. It can be argued that the color of the eyes depends on the iridoscopic constitution, that is, the hypothesis about the morphological features of the iris in people with different eye colors was confirmed.
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