The relationship between diabetes, obesity and iris markings in African Americans in Montgomery County, Alabama

Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a common health problem in the United
States and African Americans are disproportionately
affected, especially among those who are overweight and
obese. Health professionals are aware that obesity and a
family history of diabetes increase one’s risk for acquiring
the disease. Therefore, the field of genetics offers insight
into future risks based on the polygenic nature of
inheritance and environmental components. Iridology
analysis could be used as a diagnostic tool to predict and
evaluate the possibility of developing type 2 diabetes for
those obese individuals based on their iris markings with
associated genetic inheritance. This study examined 43
African American residents in Montgomery, Alabama,
where the prevalence rates of diabetes and obesity are
among the highest in the nation. Comparisons of iris
markings were made between individuals in different
groups. The findings revealed that extremely obese group
had more iris markings in the pituitary and pancreatic
regions than the obese and normal weight groups. Further,
the diabetic obese group had more iris markings in the
pancreatic region than the non-diabetic obese and normal
groups. The findings not only highlight the importance of
iridology analysis in diabetes research but also may suggest
the possibility of adding iris markers as a genetic identifier
to public health strategies aimed at detecting and preventing
diabetes.
Peggy Valentine, EdD
Jiangmin Xu, PhD,
Tatiana Jones, MPT, Laila Haile, MPT,
Myrtle Goore, MD, Jane Smolnik, ND
and Marceline Egnin, PhD
Department of Healthcare Management AND
Department of Physical Therapy, School of Health
Sciences, Winston-Salem State University, Winston-
Salem, North Carolina, Private practice, Montgomery,
Alabama, Wellness Lifestyles Center, Asheville, North
Carolina, College of Agricultural, Environmental and
Natural Sciences, Center for Plant Biotechnology
Research, Tuskegee Univer
sity, Tuskegee, Alabama,
United States of America