Iridology and Facts by Dr. Grigoriy Abramovdaprof
Recent work summarised research from several publications across the USA, as well as from several different countries, where authors explain differing opinions about Iridology. This present paper summarises evidence that supports Iridology. The data is obtained from abstracts and official publications from medical journals registered by the NLM (National Library of Medicine) .
For many years now these techniques have opponents and supporters and in more than a hundred years of history there is still no conclusive answer regarding the physiology and morphology of the iris signs.
In recent times medical doctors in Russia and some European countries continue to use Iridology in daily practice. Not only that but in-depth fundamental research to include a wide range clinical and laboratory comparison. Iridology finds a place in paediatrics, gastroenterology and cardiology. Iris data has shown that it is possible to draw up a diagnostic algorithm using computerised systems created by several different scientific groups (1,16).
In the former Soviet Union, Iridology found it is own place in 1967. The first Russian official publication about Iridology was made by E.S. Velkhover and F.N. Romashov. Their names are associated with first introduction to Iridology in the former Russian Empire. Base science made in the University of Patrice Lumumba
in Moscow. Later clinical and post graduate researches were also carried out at the Central Institute of the Special Training for Practical Doctors in Moscow. The Central Research Institute of the Gastroenterology, Kiev Institute of Oncology, and the Special Centre of Microsurgery on the Eyes in Latvia made additional scientific contribution to Iridology.
In 1982 the first Russian book for Iridologist called “Principles of Iridology”: was published by E.S. Velkhover, N.B. Shulpina, Z.A. Aliev, F.N. Romashov. After short time this book became best seller and the second edition was published in 1988 by same authors.
In 1984 Iridology in Russia made the next important steps when the official Medical Scientific board made recommendations for using Iridology in daily medical practice. It gave new life to the old methodology and powerful tools for practitioners. Special certified training courses were set up followed in1989 by the first Russian Iridology Association. Then in 1990 the co-operative “Oculus” organised first All-Union Iridology Conference. About 3,000 professionals attended this convention. We presented information about computerised methodology in Iridology. In the same year, 1990, we presented our computerided table on the first competition “Computerided Technique in Iridology.” Our software was recognized as the best and won rewards.
We must remember that Russian Iridology does not arise in a vacuum. It shares a rich international history and practice.
Founders of Iridology:
1670 are Meynes from Germany
1813 Beer from Austria
1866 I. Peczely from Hungary
1900th to current times R. Shnaubel, I. Angerer, F. Vida and Deck, F. Roberts, R. Bourdiol, T. Kriege, P. Dimkov, B. Jensen, and many other authors from different part of the world.
In 1981 Denis J. Stark wrote ” Iridology is already 100 years old and yet there has been no controlled clinical trial of its efficacy. No attempt is made to prove the efficacy of the technique is an acceptable scientific manner”(24). Many authors criticised this method for taking its information from a publications which dated from 1970-1980 manuscripts. In recent time from different sources we can find information about the latest discovery which is being made by d ifferent scientific groups and what is important is that this kind of discovery is correlated with clinical and laboratory data.
For example: Table 1 shows publication by years in different countries made by physicians.
Table 2 shows the number of patients investiaged.
From seven publications that opposed this method, just two have analysed data from patients’ populations. Another just refers to that.
Thirteen publications that have direct relation to Iridology and eleven from different clinical study have been found from a NLM Medline search. This list is not all inclusive. More than a thousand subjects investigated by different scientific groups where Iridology is recognised. Additional abstracts from different medical scientific groups just give more information about some of the relatiionships between the human iris and the internal organs.
Not so long ago we received reliable data about eye colours. Different colours relate to pigmented cells’ melanocytes. Brown colour containing higher-level melanin, light eyes – low level. But there is more to this relationship than just colour. Some authors found a relationship between eye colour and pure tone hearing threshold (5), heart rate response to intramuscular injection of atropine (6), dose-response to pilocarpine (1), correlation eyes colour to reactive motor performance (12,19), a patient case reported about sector geterochromia for neural crest disease (2), dependents living population around the world (27).
Data correlated from population of Moscow city and population from the south region of France. Moscow is 12 degrees closer to north than the France region. Group authors have described in Moscow and Moscow district 67% populations have light colour (blue, grey, green) and in north side France 56% brown and dark brown colours. From that source was expected increase latitude by 1 degree to south the number of people with brown eyes to 2% (27) increases.
Through evolutionary processes people from countries that are located close to the northern longitudes have low level pigmentation and those who live in the middle and south latitudes have a predominately brown eye colour. From physiology vision we can realise medical and a biological problem of the acclimatization (27). M. Millobot in 1976 studied a group of people from different nations (English, Afro-American, Indian, Chinese). He is found that people with blue eyes were twice more sensitive to wearing contact lenses than those with brown eyes colour, and with four times higher sensitivities then for whom who have dark eyes.
About different reaction to miotic medication was founded by Laurence S. at all in 1971 (10). He is studied hypotensive response to pilocarpine from patients with glaucoma. This group science found that patients with blue eyes need lower dosage pilocarpine (1%), than with brown (4%), and dark brown eye colours (8%).
Another author – Freedl K.E. at al established varying reactions to atropine in different groups of people with different eye colour. Subjects with more pigmented irises showed a more rapid rise in a heart rate compared to fewer pigmented irises. An identical ocular drug-melanin interaction result founded by Salazar-Bookaman M. (21).
Zubareva T.V. and Gadakcin K.A. studied 1104 patients and health persons have been found similar Iridology signs in cardiology disease – 78%, hypertonia – 66%, stenocardia – 70%, gastroenterology – 87%, pulmonology – 94%, kidney – 93%, CR – 50%, ophthalmology – 81% (33).
Velkhover E.S. and all describe that gastroenterology disease can be developed in 90.3%, cardiology in 60%, liver and gallbladder in 71.6% (27).
Some investigation made in military population and as prophylactic medical examination of the group of people from area contaminated by radioactive substance (15).
Not so long time ago Willenbring and all studied neuropathic pain on rats (32). After freezing the animals sciatic nerve it was noted that animal has pale eye syndrome or the normal pink eye colour of the albino rat is changed. After over a hundred years we have a animal model which is reproduced in laboratory experiments. This is very important evidence, which reinforces and supports the discovery made by I. Peczely.
Iridology as a non-invasive diagnostic method is ignored by the medical community and therefore is not recognised in some countries, which is a great loss for preventative medical care. On all investigations which were compared with clinical, laboratory methods and patient history, we can make concludes that Iris diagnosis can be used for the detection of different internal diseases considering close connection between the eye and internal media of the body. Practitioners can choose or not to believe in Iridology – it is our choice, but we can’t ignore the official statistical data.
Publications by years in official medical journals (tab.1)
Number investigated patients (tab.2)
- Abramov M.S. ; Iridiagnosis and Computer. Tashkent, 1990.
2. Brazel S.M. at all; Sector Heterochromia as Marker for Neural Crest Disease. Archives of Ophthalmology. 1992; 110:233-5.
3. Beer J. at all; Effect of eye colour on frisbee toss. Percept Mot. Skills. 1988; 66(2):675-6.
4. Colton S. at al: An ABC of Alternative Medicine. Iridology. Health Visitors. 1987. 60(4); 121.
5. Coren S. at all: Eye Colour and Pure-tone Hearing Threshold. Percept. Mot Skills. 1994; 79(3 pt 1):1373-4.
6. Friedl K.E. at all: Effect of Eye Color on Heart Rate Response to Intramuscular Administration of Atropine. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1988; 24(1-2):51-6.
7. Ganich T.M.: Iridodiagnostic in Diseases of Digestive Organs and Participation of Oculists in it. Oftalmologicheski Zhurnal 1988; 2:103-105
8. Kameneva O.P. at all: Iridodiagnosis of Pancreatic Pathology in Childhood. Pediatriia. 1988:62-65
9. Knipschild P.: Looking for Gall Bladder Disease in the Patient’s Iris. BMJ. 1988;297-17:1578-1581.
10. Laurence S. at all: effect of Ocular Pigmentation on Hypotensive Response to Pilocarpine. American journal of Ophthalmology., 1971; 11:923-925.
11. Longon W.P.: at all Breast Cancer and Cerebral Laterality. Percept Mot. Skills. 1991; 72(1):112-4.
12. Miller L.K. at all: Correlation of Eye Color on Self-Paced and Reactive Motor Performance. Perpet Mot. Skills. 1992; 75(1):91-5
13. Pang S.F. at all: Melatonin in the Retina of Rats: Diurnal Rhythm. J. of Endocrinology. 1980; 87(1):89-93
14. Pang. S.F. at all: Effect of Photic Manipulation on the Level of Melatonin in the Retinas of Frogs (Rana Tirgina Regulosa). General & Comparative Endocrinology. 1985; 58(3):464-70.
15. Ponomarenko V.M. at all: Iridodiagnosis in the System of the Follow-up of the Health Status of the Population Living in an Area Contaminated by Radioactive Substances. Vrachebnoe Delo. 1992;1:46-49.
16. Popuscu M.P. at all: Improved Irido-diagnostic method: Possibilities of Computerized Iridology. Revista de Chirurgie, Oncologie, Radiologie. Orl.Oftalmologie, Stomatologie-seria: Oftalmologie. 1986. 30(1):29-33
17. Popescu M.P. Iridology, an investigative test in the diagnosis of some general disease. Revista de Chirurgie, Oncologie, Radiologie. Orl.Oftalmologie, Stomatologie-seria: Oftalmologie. 1979;23(3):197-200.
18. Romashov F.N. at all: Possibilities and Errors of Iridodiagnosis. Eksp-Khir-Anesteziol. 1973; Mar-Apr; 18(2):49-56.
19. Rowe P.J. at all: Ball Color, Eye Color, and Reactive Motor Skill. Percept Mot. Skills. 1994; 79(1 Pt 2):671-4.
20. Russel S. at all: Pseudoscince – a Critical Look at Iridology. J of the American Optometric Assoc. 1984; 55:735-739.
21. Salazar-Bookaman M.M. at all: Relevance of drug-melanin interaction ocular pharmacology and toxicology. J. Ocul. Pharmacol. 1994; 10(1):217-39.
22. Simon A. at all: An Evaluation of Iridology. JAMA 1979;242:1385-1389.
23. Shulpina N.B. at all: Potential Use of Iridodiagnosis in Clinical Practice. Vestnik Oftalmologii. 1986; May-June: 63-66
24. Star D.K.: Look Into My Eyes. The Medical Journal of Australia. 1981;12:676-679.
25. Trevor-Roper P.D.: From Acupuncture to Iris Diagnosis. Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde. 1977;170(6):877-9.
26. Van Den Berg T.J. at all: Dependence of Intraocular Stray Light on Pigmentation and Light Transmission Through the Ocular Wall. Vision Res. 1991;31(7-8):1361-7.
27. Velkhover E.S. at all: Iridodiagnosis. Ed “Medicine”. Moscow. 1988.
28. Velkhover E.S. at all: The Effectiveness of Rapid Iridodiagnosis in Mass Examination in a Policlinic. Voen-Med-Zh. 1988; Jun (6):36-38.
29. Vints L.A.: Difficulties in Iridodiagnosis. Voen-Med-Zh. 1988;Sep(9):52-54.
30. Vints L.A.: The Iridodiagnosis of Diseases of the Internal Organs in Persons with Conjunctivitis. Voen-Med-Zn. 1990; Jun(6):47-48.
31. Worrall R.S> Pseudoscince — a Critical Look at Iridology. J. Am Optom. Assoc. 1984; 55(10): 735-739
32. Willenbring S. at all: Differential outcomes in the Sciatic Cryonerolysis Module of Neuropathic Pain in Rats. Pain. 1994; 58(2):135-40
33. Zubareva T.V. at all: The Usage of Iridoscopic Investigation in Prophylactic Examinations. Oftalmologicheski Zhurnal. 1989;4:233-235.
34. Zaikova M.V. at all: Diagnosis Possibilities of Iridodiagnostics in General Clinical Practice. Oftalmologicheski Zhurnal. 1989; 1:39-41.